A combined analytical and Monte Carlo method for detailed simulations of antiscatter grids in x-ray medical imaging: implementing scatter within the grid

Rodrigo T. Massera, Hilde Bosmans, Sunay Rodriguez Pérez, Nicholas W. Marshall

Research outputpeer-review


Objective. To implement a hybrid method, which combines analytical tracking and interaction simulation using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques, in order to model photon transport inside antiscatter grids (ASG) for x-ray imaging. Approach. A new tally was developed for PENELOPE (v.2018) and penEasy (v. 2020) MC code to simulate photon transmission through ASGs. Two established analytical algorithms from the literature were implemented in this tally. In addition, a new hybrid method was introduced by extending one of the analytical algorithms to include photon-interactions inside the grid, while preserving the imaged grid structure. Calculations of primary ( T P ) , scatter ( T S ) , and total ( T T ) grid transmissions in addition to the Q factor (Q = T P 2 / T T ) were performed. The new tally was validated for a quadric geometry ASG, and experimental measurements with a PMMA phantom of several thicknesses. In addition, the contribution of the scatter inside the grid was studied for three interspace materials, and a high resolution image of the grid was simulated. Main results. An excellent agreement was found between the two analytical models compared with the quadric grid without scatter, and the hybrid method with the geometrical grid with scatter. Average deviations of 0.2% and 1.4% were found between T P and T S for the hybrid method and quadric grid, while for the hybrid method and experimental measurements these values were 1% and 20%. Antiscatter grids with aluminium as interspace material had the highest amount of scatter from inside the grid to the final image, followed up by paper fibre and air. The high resolution image of the grid was equivalent using the quadric geometry or the hybrid mode. Significance. The hybrid method provides a means of studying scattered radiation from the antiscatter grid with the advantage of higher performance, with results that are consistent with a full quadric geometry simulation of the ASG.

Original languageEnglish
Article number075021
Number of pages16
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 7 Apr 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this