Public communication is one of the most challenging aspects of nuclear emergencies. The overall objective of this study is to analyse how and to what extent are European Member States prepared to communicate in case of nuclear or radiological emergencies. The study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: online surveys, round table discussion, workshop and consultations. The data for the study were collected from September 2017 to June 2018. Results show that nuclear safety authorities and other authorities or organisations responsible for defining and implementing public communication requirements during emergencies are significantly challenged as information and communication technologies continue to advance and public expectations continue to rise. While public information needs are largely met, many countries fail to respond to the demands of the current social media landscape, the level of stakeholder engagement and cross-border collaboration in the field of communication. Good practices are collected and may serve as an inspiration for authorities in their public communication plans in order to fill the communication gap in practice.