Many bacterial species communicate using a complex system known as quorum sensing (QS) in which gene expression is controlled in response to cell density. In this study an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) synthase (Rru_A3396) knockout mutant (M68) of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H (WT) was constructed and characterized phenotypically under light anaerobic conditions. Results showed that R. rubrum WT produces unsubstituted, 3-OH and 3-oxo-substituted AHLs with acyl chains ranging from 4 to 14 carbons, with 3-OH-C8 being the most abundant. Growth, pigment content and swimming motility were found to be under the control of this LuxI-type QS system. In addition, cultivation in a low shear environment put forward the aggregative phenotype of M68 and linked biofilm formation to QS in R. rubrum S1H. Interestingly, QS-mutant M68 continued to produce decreased levels of 3-OH-C8-HSL, probably due to the presence of an extra HdtS-type AHL synthase.