Coulomb-excitation experiments are performed with postaccelerated beams of neutron-deficient Po-196,Po-198,Po-200,Po-202 isotopes at the REX-ISOLDE facility. A set of matrix elements, coupling the low-lying states in these isotopes, is extracted. In the two heaviest isotopes, Po-196,Po-198, the transitional and diagonal matrix elements of the 2(1)(+) state are determined. In Po-196,Po-198 multistep Coulomb excitation is observed, populating the 4(1)(+), 0(2)(+), and 2(2)(+) states. The experimental results are compared to the results from the measurement of mean-square charge radii in polonium isotopes, confirming the onset of deformation from Po-196 onwards. Three model descriptions are used to compare to the data. Calculations with the beyond-mean-field model, the interacting boson model, and the general Bohr Hamiltonian model show partial agreement with the experimental data. Finally, calculations with a phenomenological two-level mixing model hint at the mixing of a spherical structure with a weakly deformed rotational structure.