One of the new challenges facing humanity is to reach increasingly further distant space targets. It is therefore of upmost importance to understand the behavior of microorganisms that will unavoidably reach the space environment together with the human body and equipment. Indeed, microorganisms could activate their stress defense mechanisms, modifying properties related to human pathogenesis. The host–microbe interactions, in fact, could be substantially affected under spaceflight conditions and the study of microorganisms’ growth and activity is necessary for predicting these behaviors and assessing precautionary measures during spaceflight. This review gives an overview of the effects of microgravity and space radiation on microorganisms both in real and simulated conditions.