In medical exposure situations, the significant role of and the need to improve the benefit/risk dialogue between health professionals, patients and other stakeholders are well recognized. This paper analyses stakeholder engagement processes in various medical applications of ionising radiation. It addresses the role and potential benefit of radiological protection (RP) culture for health professionals and the issues associated with the practical implementation of informed consent processes. The paper highlights the need to develop RP culture among health professionals to facilitate dialogue between practitioners and patients and to foster the implementation of the principles of radiological protection. It argues that patients’ participation can be enhanced by creating spaces and opportunities for dialogue between patients and the relevant medical professionals, both before the implementation of medical procedures using ionizing radiation, particularly at the moment of referral, as well as after these procedures. Risk communication training for medical professionals and their closer collaboration on this topic may enhance the dialogue with patients.