Gamma counting protocols for the accurate quantification of 225Ac and 213Bi without the need for a secular equilibrium between parent and gamma‑emitting daughter

Research outputpeer-review


Background Quantification of actinium-225 through gamma counter measurements, when there is no secular equilibrium between actinium-225 and its gamma emitting daughters bismuth-213 and/or francium-221, can provide valuable information regarding the possible relocation of recoiled daughters such that related radiotoxicity effects can be evaluated. This study proposes a multiple time-point protocol using the bismuth-213 photopeak with measurements before secular equilibrium between actinium-225 and bismuth-213, and a single time-point protocol using both the francium-221 and bismuth-213 photopeak while assuming secular equilibrium between actinium-225 and francium-221 but not between bismuth-213 and actinium-225. Results Good agreement (i.e. 3% accuracy) was obtained when relying on a multiple time-points measurement of bismuth-213 to quantify both actinium-225 and excess of bismuth-213. Following scatter correction, actinium-225 can be accurately quantified using the francium-221 in a single time-point measurement within 3% of accuracy. The analysis performed on the stability data of [225Ac]Ac-DEPA and [225Ac]Ac-DOTA complexes, before secular equilibrium between bismuth-213 and actinium-225 was formed, revealed considerable amounts of unbound bismuth-213 (i.e. more than 90%) after 24 h of the radiolabeling most likely due to the recoiled daughter effect. Conclusion Both protocols were able to accurately estimate 225Ac-activities provided the francium-221 energy window was corrected for the down scatter of the higher-energy gamma-emissions by bismuth-213. This could prove beneficial to study the recoiled daughter effect and redistribution of free bismuth-213 by monitoring the accumulation or clearance of bismuth-213 in different tissues during biodistribution studies or in patient samples during clinical studies. On the other hand, the single gamma counter measurement protocol, although required a 30 min waiting time, is more time and cost efficient and therefore more appropriate for standardized quality control procedures of 225Ac-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.
Original languageEnglish
Article number28
Number of pages17
JournalEJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry
Issue number28
StatePublished - 23 Oct 2022

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