This paper presents an overview of the different joining technologies that can be used to join glass to metal in a severe nuclear environment. The working mechanism of the technologies are explained, together with their respective advantages and drawbacks. Three different types of joining are discussed: fastening, liquid phase joining and solid phase joining. Fastening is a mechanical attachment technique, not achieving easily hermetic seals. Liquid and solid phase joining on the other hand form a real bond, what makes the joint much stronger. The most important technologies using liquid phase joining are adhesive bonding, fusion welding and brazing. In the case of the solid phase joining the choices are ultrasonic torsion welding, diffusion bonding and electrostatic bonding. If it is usually not possible to join the glass directly to the metal, an interlayer must be used. One speaks then of indirect joining. The paper will conclude with a discussion on the best choices for the specific examples of windows in the vacuum vessel of ITER and the use of embedded optical fibres sensors in nuclear reactors.
|Title of host publication||Conference Proceedings: Exploring Structure, Processing, and Applications Across Multiple Materials Systems|
|Place of Publication||United States|
|State||Published - Sep 2007|
|Event||Materials Science & Technology Conference and Exhibition - ACerS, AIST, TMS, ASM, Detroit, Michigan|
Duration: 16 Sep 2007 → 20 Sep 2007
|Conference||Materials Science & Technology Conference and Exhibition|
|Period||2007-09-16 → 2007-09-20|