Hand exposure in diagnostic nuclear medicine with 18F- and 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals - Results of the ORAMED project

Adela Carnicer, Marta Sans-Mercé, Sebastien Baechler, Ilona Barth, Laurent Donadille, Paolo Ferrari, Marko Fulop, Mercè Ginjaume, G. Gualdrini, Sabah Krim, M. Mariotti, Xavier Ortega, Arndt Rimpler, Natasha Ruiz, Filip Vanhavere

    Research outputpeer-review


    Workers performing preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals in NM departments are likely to receive high local skin doses to the hands which may even surpass the dose limit of 500 mSv whenever radiation protection standards are insufficient. A large measurement campaign was organised within the framework of the ORAMED project to determine the dose distribution across the hands received during preparation and administration of 18F- and 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. The final data, collected over almost 3 years, include 641 measurements from 96 workers in 30 NM departments from 6 European countries. Results have provided levels of reference doses for the considered standard NM diagnostic procedures (mean maximum normalised skin dose of 230 μSv/GBq, 430 μSv/GBq, 930 μSv/GBq and 1200 μSv/GBq for the administration of 99mTc, preparation of 99mTc, administration of 18F and preparation of 18F, respectively). Finger dose was analysed as a function of the potential parameters of influence showing that shielding is the most efficient means of radiation protection to reduce skin dose. An appropriate method for routine monitoring of the extremities is also proposed: the base of the index finger of the non-dominant hand is a suitable position to place the ring dosemeter, with its sensitive part oriented towards the palm side; its reading may be multiplied by a factor of 6 to estimate the maximum local skin dose. Finally, results were compared to earlier published data, which correspond mostly to individual works with a reduced number of workers and measurements.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1277-1282
    Number of pages6
    JournalRadiation Measurements
    Issue number11
    StatePublished - 13 Jul 2011

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