Absorbed dose heterogeneity in kidney tissues is an important issue in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The effect of absorbed dose heterogeneity in nephrotoxicity is, however, not fully understood yet, which hampers the implementation of treatment optimization by obscuring the interpretation of clinical response data and the selection of optimal treatment options. Although some dosimetry methods have been developed for kidney dosimetry to the level of microscopic renal substructures, the clinical assessment of the microscopic distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in kidney tissues currently remains a challenge. This restricts the anatomical resolution of clinical dosimetry, which hinders a thorough clinical investigation of the impact of absorbed dose heterogeneity. The potential of absorbed dose–response modelling to support individual treatment optimization in radiopharmaceutical therapy is recognized and gaining attraction. However, biophysical modelling is currently underexplored for the kidney, where particular modelling challenges arise from the convolution of a complex functional organization of renal tissues with the function-mediated dose distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. This article reviews and discusses the heterogeneity of absorbed dose distribution in kidney tissues and the absorbed dose–response modelling of nephrotoxicity in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The review focuses mainly on the peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with beta-particle emitting somatostatin analogues, for which the scientific literature reflects over two decades of clinical experience. Additionally, detailed research perspectives are proposed to address various identified challenges to progress in this field.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging