One of the main challenges in the development of a plasma diagnostic and control system for DEMO is the need to cope with unprecedented radiation levels in a tokamak during long operation periods. A list of diagnostics required for plasma control has been developed during the pre-conceptual design phase. Different approaches are proposed for the integration of these diagnostics in DEMO: in equatorial and upper ports, in the divertor cassette, on the inner and outer surfaces of the vacuum vessel and in diagnostic slim cassettes, a modular approach developed for diagnostics requiring access to the plasma from several poloidal positions. According to each integration approach, diagnostics will be exposed to different radiation levels, with a considerable impact on their design. This paper provides a broad overview of the radiation environment that diagnostics in DEMO are expected to face. Using the water-cooled lithium lead blanket configuration as a reference, neutronics simulations were performed for pre-conceptual designs of in-vessel, ex-vessel and equatorial port diagnostics representative of each integration approach. Flux and nuclear load calculations are provided for several sub-systems, along with estimations of radiation streaming to the ex-vessel for alternative design configurations. The results can be used as a reference by diagnostic designers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering