New optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry film optimized for energy dependence guided by Monte Carlo simulations

Marijke De Saint-Hubert, Marco Caprioli, Luana de Freitas Nascimento, Laurence Delombaerde, Katleen Himschoot, Dirk Vandenbroucke, Paul Leblans, Wouter Crijns

Research outputpeer-review


Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) film dosimeters, based on BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor material, have major dosimetric advantages such as dose linearity, high spatial resolution, film re-usability, and immediate film readout. However, they exhibit an energy-dependent over-response at low photon energies because they are not made of tissue-equivalent materials. In this work, the OSL energy-dependent response was optimized by lowering the phosphor grain size and seeking an optimal choice of phosphor concentration and film thickness to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity. This optimization process combines measurement-based assessments of energy response in narrow x-ray beams with various energy response calculation methods applied to different film metrics. Theoretical approaches and MC dose simulations were used for homogeneous phosphor distributions and for isolated phosphor grains of different dimensions, where the dose in the phosphor grain was calculated. In total 8 OSL films were manufactured with different BaFBr:Eu2+ median particle diameters (D50): 3.2 μm, 1.5 μm and 230 nm and different phosphor concentrations (1.6%, 5.3% and 21.3 %) and thicknesses (from 5.2 to 49 μm). Films were irradiated in narrow x-ray spectra (N60, N80, N-150 and N-300) and the signal intensity relative to the nominal dose-to-water value was normalized to Co-60. Finally, we experimentally tested the response of several films in Varian 6MV TrueBeam STx linear accelerator using the following settings: 10 × 10 cm2 field, 0deggantry angle, 90 cm SSD, 10 cm depth. The x-ray irradiation experiment reported a reduced energy response for the smallest grain size with an inverse correlation between response and grain size. The N-60 irradiation showed a 43% reduction in the energy over-response when going from 3 μm to 230 nm grain size for the 5% phosphor concentration. Energy response calculation using a homogeneous dispersion of the phosphor underestimated the experimental response and was not able to obtain the experimental correlation between grain size and energy response. Isolated grain size modeling combined with MC dose simulations allowed to establish a good agreement with experimental data, and enabled steering the production of optimized OSL-films. The clinical 6 MV beam test confirmed a reduction in energy dependence, which is visible in small-grain films where a decrease in out-of-field over-response was observed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number075005
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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