OpenDose: open access resources for nuclear medicine dosimetry

Maxime Chauvin, Damian Borys, Francesca Botta, Pawel Bzowski, Jérémie Dabin, Ana M. Denis-Bacelar, Aurélie Desbrée, Nadia Falzone, Boon Quand Lee, Andrea Mairani, Gilles Mathieu, Alessandra Malaroda, Erin McKay, Erick Mora-Ramirez, Andrew P. Robinson, David Sarrut, Lara Struelens, A. Vergara Gil, Manuel Bardiès

Research outputpeer-review


Background: Radiopharmaceutical dosimetry depends on the localization in space and time of radioactive sources and requires the estimation of the amount of energy emitted by the sources deposited within targets. In particular, when computing resources are not accessible, this task can be carried out using precomputed tables of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) or S values based on dosimetric models. The OpenDose collaboration aims to generate and make freely available a range of dosimetric data and tools.
Methods: OpenDose brings together resources and expertise from 18 international teams to produce and compare traceable dosimetric data using 6 of the most popular Monte Carlo codes in radiation transport (EGSnrc/EGS++, FLUKA, GATE, Geant4, MCNP/MCNPX and PENELOPE). SAFs are uploaded, together with their associated statistical uncertainties, in a relational database. S values are then calculated from mono-energetic SAFs, based on the radioisotope decay data presented in the International Commission on Radiological Protection
(ICRP) publication 107.
Results: The OpenDose collaboration produced SAFs for all source regions and targets combinations of the two ICRP 110 adult reference models. SAFs computed from the different Monte Carlo codes were in good agreement at all energies, with standard deviations below individual statistical uncertainties. Calculated S values were in good agreement with OLINDA 2 (commercial) and IDAC 2.1 (free) software. A dedicated website ( has been
developed to provide easy and open access to all data.
Conclusion: The OpenDose website allows the display and download of SAFs and the corresponding S values for 1252 radionuclides. The OpenDose collaboration, open to new research teams, will extend data production to other dosimetric models and implement new free features, such as online dosimetric tools and patient-specific absorbed dose calculation software, together with educational resources.
Original languageEnglish
Article number240366
Pages (from-to)1514-1519
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2020

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