Higher-order telencephalic circuitry has been suggested to be especially vulnerable to irradiation or other developmentally toxic impact. This report details the adult effects of prenatal irradiation at a sensitive time point on clinically relevant brain functions controlled by telencephalic regions, hippocampus (HPC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Pregnant C57Bl6/J mice were whole-body irradiated at embryonic day 11 (start of neurogenesis) with X-ray intensities of 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0 Gy. Female offspring completed a broad test battery of HPC-/PFC-controlled tasks that included cognitive performance, fear extinction, exploratory, and depression-like behaviors. We examined neural functions that are mechanistically related to these behavioral and cognitive changes, such as hippocampal field potentials and long-term potentiation, functional brain connectivity (by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging), and expression of HPC vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (by immunohistochemical quantification). Prenatally exposed mice displayed several higher-order dysfunctions, such as decreased nychthemeral activity, working memory defects, delayed extinction of threat-evoked response suppression as well as indications of perseverative behavior. Electrophysiological examination indicated impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Prenatal irradiation also induced cerebral hypersynchrony and increased the number of glutamatergic HPC terminals. These changes in brain connectivity and plasticity could mechanistically underlie the irradiation-induced defects in higher telencephalic functions.