During their lifetime, humans are exposed to physical, chemical, and biological agents. Among the physical agents, ionizing radiations can produce damage to molecular systems. Ionizing radiations have been known to induce a broad spectrum of genetic effects, including gene, minisatellite mutations, micronucleus formation, chromosome aberrations, ploidy changes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand breaks and chromosome instability. It has long been known to be deleterious after high dose exposure (>100mSv), predominantly inducing cancer although very high dose exposures yield to tissue damage and ultimately death. Furthermore, ionizing radiation has been called the "universal carcinogen" in that it might induce cancer in most tissues of most species at all ages, including fetus. The hazards of exposure to ionizing radiation were recognized shortly after Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray in 1895. Acute skin reactions were observed in many individuals working with early x-ray generators, and by 1902 the first radiation-induced cancer was reported arising in an ulcerated area of the skin. Then, a few years later, a large number of cancers were 2 observed, and the first report of leukemia in five radiation workers appeared in 1911. Indeed, Marie Curie and her daughter Irene are both thought to have died of radiation-induced leukemia.
|Place of Publication||Baghdad, Iraq|
|State||Published - 1 Mar 2009|