Nanofibers of sodium vanadate, consisting of very thin negatively charged layers and exchangeable sodium ions between the layers, are efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 137Cs+ and 85Sr2+ cations from water. The exchange of 137Cs+ or 85Sr2+ ions with the interlayer Na+ ions eventually triggered structural deformation of the thin layers, trapping the 137Cs+ and 85Sr2+ ions in the nanofibers. Furthermore, when the nanofibers were dispersed in a AgNO3 solution at pH >7, well-dispersed Ag2O nanocrystals formed by firmly anchoring themselves on the fiber surfaces along planes of crystallographic similarity with those of Ag2O. These nanocrystals can efficiently capture I− anions by forming a AgI precipitate, which was firmly attached to the substrates. We also designed sorbents that can remove 137Cs+ and 125I− ions simultaneously for safe disposal by optimizing the Ag2O loading and sodium content of the vanadate. This study confirms that sorbent features such as fibril morphology, negatively charged thin layers and readily exchangeable Na+ ions between the layers, and the crystal planes for the formation of a coherent interface with Ag2O nanocrystals on the fiber surface are very important for the simultaneous uptake of cations and anions.